ANTIGLOBALISTI Majkl Čosudovski

Piše Vladislav Panov

Jedan od lidera antiglobalističkog internacionalnog otpora, zahvaljujući višedecenijskom predavačkom, savetničkom i teorijskom književnom radu je kanadski profesor ruskog porekla, ekonomista Majkl Čosudovski

Majkl Čosudovski

Kanadski profesor ekonomije Majkl Čosudovski, o čijoj smo najnovijoj knjizi „Uvod u scenario trećeg svetskog rata“ nedavno pisali, godinama je jedna od najznačajnijih figura intelektualnog otpora globalističkim tendencijama u svetu. Njegova sfera pisanja protiv ove pojave je prilično široka, a obuhvata stalnu saradnju sa specijalizovanim magazinima i internet sajtovima koji se bave sveobuhvatnom analizom globalističke političke i ekonomske strukture, kao i tendencijama zapadnog porobljavanja takozvanog „trećeg sveta“. Osim ove saradnje, Čosudovski se istakao i kao samostalni autor čije su knjige tokom proteklih dvadesetak godina postale okosnica teorijske potpore političke alternative neoliberalističkim i globalističkim tendencijama političkog mejnstrima Zapada.

RAZORNA KOLUMNA „IMENA“
Profesor Čosudovski je svojim delima postavio temelje u stvaranju mreže svetskog otpora ovim pojavama, najpre radeći u „Otporu trećeg sveta“, magazinu „Mreže trećeg sveta“, internacionalne mreže organizacija i pojedinaca koji su okupljeni radom na problematici zaštite nerazvijenih zemalja u vezi sa političkim i ekonomskim razvojem, zaštite prirodnih bogatstva i životne sredine, zdravstva, međunarodnih odnosa, kulture i  drugih sfera života, politike i teorije. Bio je istaknuti  i dugotrajno prisutan autor  u američkoj publikaciji „Tajne akcije“, čiji je jedini motiv nastanka i izlaženja kritički osvrt na rad američke Centralne obaveštajne službe. Ovaj bilten je postao čuven u javnosti i trn u oku američkim vlastima zbog svoje kolumne „Imena“, u kojoj je objavljivao identitete tajnih operativaca CIA-e.
Posebni deo u karijeri profesora Čosudovskog je pisanje o razaranju Jugoslavije i medijskom, političkom i ekonomskom ratom koji se vodio protiv nje, kao i protiv njenih sukcesora. Posle napada na Ameriku 11. septembra 2001. godine, Čosudovski se temeljno pozabavio istorijatom posebnih odnosa američkih vlasti sa Alkaidom i Bin Ladenom. Kada je u Belu kuću ušao aktuelni predsednik Barak Obama, Čosudovski je zapanjio Amerikance izjavivši globalnoj ruskoj TV-mreži „Rusija danas“ da je pretnja broj jedan svetskoj sigurnosti i miru Obama, a ne Osama! Tim povodom je u uvodu svoje najpoznatije knjige „Rat protiv terorizma“ napisao i ovo:
„Ključ vojne doktrine Bušove administracije oslanjao se na mitove o ‘spoljnjem neprijatelju’ i ‘islamskim teroristima’ i poslužili su kao izgovor da se napadnu Avganistan i Irak, da i ne pominjem potpuno odbacivanje građanskih sloboda i ustavne vladavine u Americi. Bez ‘spoljnjeg neprijatelja’ ne bi bio moguć ‘rat protiv terorizma’… Invazija na Avganistan je odavno planirana u sprezi Sjedinjenih Država i NATO-a. Napad od 11. septembra je bio samo potreban izgovor da ta invazija konačno započne…“
Zbog ovakvih tvrdnji profesor Čosudovski je postao pretnja globalizovanom pacifikovanju javnosti, od medija bombardovana instalacijom neophodnog jednoumlja i poslušničkih „patriotskih“ osećanja posle 11. septembra. Napadnut je sa svih strana, čak u i svojoj zemlji. Njega je jedini konzervativni magazin u Kanadi, kako ponosno vole sebe da zovu, „Vestern standard“ nazvao najluđim kanadskim profesorom čije ga apsurdno trabunjanje za glavu izdvaja od svih drugih kolega. Nazvali su ga i manijakom teorija zavere. Posebno se zamerio moćnim jevrejskim lobijima koji su napali medijsku antiglobalističku mrežu „Global risrč“, kroz koju Čosudovski godinama plasira svoja dela, prilepivši joj, kao i „ludom profesoru“, antisemitističku etiketu. Čak su i zatražili da njegov angažman u „Global risrču“ bude temeljno istražen od strane Univerziteta u Otavi,  na kojem profesor godinama radi,  što je zapravo bio posredan poziv da Čosudovski bude odstranjen sa svog položaja na tom univerzitetu.

TRN U OKU AMERIČKIH JASTREBOVA
Ali on nije stao sa provociranjem vlasti i moćnika. Vrhunac u izazivanju američke ratoborne politike je profesorova detaljna analiza američkog oružja za masovno uništenje, posebno kontroverznog HARP-a, jonosferskog tajnog oružja za masovno uništenje s kojim je moguće uticati na klimu, uništavati regionalne električne sisteme, pa čak i menjati zemljine magnetne pojaseve i izazivati zemljotrese, a za koje profesor tvrdi da je u operativnom stanju i da je čak korišćeno.
Tokom karijere Čosudovski je objavio nekoliko kontroverznih i zanimljivih knjiga, čiji već sami naslovi dovoljno govore: „Globalizacija siromaštva i novi svetski poredak“, „Izvoz aparthejda u podsaharsku Afriku“, „Da li se kanadska ekonomija zatvara?“, „Kineski socijalizam posle Maoa“, „Vašingtonski novi svetski poredak“, „Američki rat protiv terorizma“, „Uvod u scenario trećeg svetskog rata“. Sve te knjige su doživele bilo u klasičnom štampanom izdanju ili u elektronskoj formi mnoštvo izdanja, kao i prevode na preko dvadeset jezika. Profesor Čosudovski je rođen 1946. godine kao sin istaknutog ruskog akademika Evgenija Čosudovskog i Irkinje Rejčel. Zaposlen je na Univerzitetu u Otavi kao profesor ekonomije, a gostujući je predavač u raznim  akademskim institucijama širom Severne  i Latinske Amerike,  Evrope i jugoistočne Azije. Bio je savetnik u vladama brojnih zemalja u razvoju i konsultant niza internacionalnih organizacija, od „Afričke razvojne banke“, do „Razvojnog programa Ujedinjenih Nacija“. Od 1999. godine je član „Transnacionalne fondacije za mir i buduća istraživanja“. Radi i u istraživačkim organizacijama poput „Komiteta za monetarnu i ekonomsku reformu“ ili „Internacionalnog narodnog zdravstvenog saveta“. Urednik je u Centru za istraživanje globalizacije koji ima svoj vebsajt na kojem stoji da je Centar osnovan s težnjom da se zaustavi plima globalizacije i razoruža novi svetski poredak!

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Čosudovski o raspadu Jugoslavije

…Multietnička socijalistička Jugoslavija je nekada bila regionalna industrijska sila, država ekonomskog uspeha. Tokom dve decenije pre 1980. godine godišnji bruto proizvod je u Jugoslaviji beležio rast od 6.1 procenta. Medicinska zaštita je bila besplatna, bilo je pismeno preko 90 procenata populacije, a prosečni životni vek stanovništva se popeo na 71 godinu. Ali posle decenije zapadne ekonomske pomoći i petogodišnje dezintegracije, ratova, embarga i bojkota, ekonomija bivše Jugoslavije je bila uništena, a nekada moćni industrijski sektor razoren.
Jugoslovenska implozija je delom rezultat američkih mahinacija. Uprkos političkom kursu nesvrstavanja i bogatim trgovinskim odnosima sa Evropskom zajednicom i Sjedinjenim Državama, administracija Ronalda Regana je naciljala jugoslovensku ekonomiju u tajnoj direktivi Nacionalne bezbednosti iz 1984. godine, koja je postala osnova za buduću politiku Sjedinjenih Država prema Jugoslaviji. Cenzurisana verzija ovog dokumenta je objavljena 1990. godine i iz nje se vidi da je američka politika prema Istočnoj Evropi, uključujući i Jugoslaviju, zapravo skup širokih mera za promociju „tihe revolucije“ u cilju rušenja komunističkih vlasti i partija i potonje reintegrisanje „oslobođenih“ istočnoevropskih zemalja u tržišno orjentisane ekonomije. Što se tiče Jugoslavije, ovaj proces je iniciran nametanjem zapadnih, na čelu sa američkim kreditorima, makroekonomskih reformi čija je prva runda počela odmah posle smrti maršala Tita 1980. godine. Tokom te decenije „Međunarodni monetarni fond“ i „Svetska banka“ su periodično prepisivali nove doze njihovog gorkog ekonomskog eliksira s kojim je Jugoslavija lagano dovedena u komatozno stanje.
Od samog početka ovog procesa programi koje je nametao MMF su ubrzavali dezintegraciju jugoslovenske privrede, što je dovelo do negativnog privrednog rasta od čak deset procenata u 1990. godini. Dotadašnja država blagostanja je konačno razorena sa svim predvidljivim socijalnim posledicama. U međuvremenu je drastično narastao strani dug države, što je dovelo da pritiska na kurs domaće valute i srozavanje standarda građana. Krajem 1989. godine jugoslovenski premijer Ante Marković se u Vašingtonu sastaje sa predsednikom Džordžom Bušom, kako bi okončao pregovore oko nove finansijske pomoći Jugoslaviji. Zauzvrat Jugoslavija je morala da pristane na još drastičnije ekonomske reforme, na devalvaciju, zamrzavanje plata, oštre rezove u državnoj potrošnji i eliminaciju državnog i radničkog upravljanja preduzećima. Masivne reforme koje su naložene spolja ubrzo su bile primenjene, uključujući i onu za Zapad najvažniju – liberalizaciju zakonodavstva, posebno kada su u pitanju strana ulaganja. Ekonomska šok terapija je počela januara 1990. godine i to je, pored ostalog, dovelo do realnog pada vrednosti plata od preko četrdeset procenata. MMF je u potpunosti držao pod kontrolom jugoslovensku „Centralnu banku“, što je značajno smanjilo mogućnost socijalnog davanja i realizaciju ekonomskih programa. Reformatori su naprečac uspostavili sve neophodne uslove za konačni slom Jugoslavije koja u tom momentu više nije imala federalnu fiskalnu strukturu, a sve federalne političke institucije su bile smrtno ranjene. Presecanjem finansijskih arterija između Beograda i republika, ove reforme su zapravo dale energiju secionističkim tendencijama koje su se hranile ne samo etničkim podelama, već i ekonomskim faktorima. Budžetska kriza stvorena intervencijom MMF-a je obezbedila de fakto otcepljenje republika, najpre Slovenije i Hrvatske…
Od Zapada nametnuta neoliberalna makroekonomska rekonstrukcija privrede je odigrala ključnu ulogu u uništavanju Jugoslavije. Ipak, od početka rata 1991. godine svetski mediji su brižno prevideli ili porekli svoju ulogu u ovom procesu. Odnosno, upravo suprotno, pridružili su se horu hvalospeva na račun slobodnog tržišta, kao baze za izgradnju razorene privrede. Socijalni i politički uticaj ove ekonomske rekonstrukcije u Jugoslaviji je pažljivo izbrisan iz kolektivne svesti svih nas. Stvaraoci javnog mnjenja su uspostavili dogmu da su za raspad Jugoslavije krive etničke i religijske podele, iako su u stvarnosti te podele bile samo posledica daleko dubljih procesa i političkih lomova. Ta lažna svest nametnuta od moćnih kampanja medija nas je sve onemogućila da shvatimo značaj istorijskih zbivanja i promena, kao i prave uzroke socijalnih konflikta. Kada je reč o bivšoj Jugoslaviji, ovakve laži su potpuno zamutile osnove južnoslovenskog ujedinjenja, solidarnost i jedinstvo ovih naroda. Ali, takva lažna i izvitoperena svest postoji širom sveta, svuda gde su uništene fabrike, radnici bez posla i raskomadani socijalni programi i gde je jedini mogući recept „gorka ekonomska pilula“… Ono što se dogodilo Jugoslaviji i potom nastavilo da se dešava njenim nejakim državicama proizišlim iz njenog raspada, sigurno odzvanja daleko van Balkana. Jugoslavija je ogledalo za slične ekonomske programe rekonstrukcije i to ne samo u nerazvijenom svetu, već i u Sjedinjenim Državama, Kanadi i celoj zapadnoj Evropi. Jugoslovenske reforme su okrutna refleksija modela destruktivne ekonomije u svom najekstremnijem izdanju.

Ovo su delovi teksta profesora doktora Majkla Čosudovskog koji je prosledio Projektu „Drugo lice Evrope“, alternativni forum Evropskog samita, u Madridu 1995. godine

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    Interesantne clanke mozete naci na (globalresearch.ca) i na
    Srbskom jeziku

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    H.A.A.R.P.

    It’s not only greenhouse gas emissions: Washington’s new world order weapons
    have the ability to trigger climate change.

    By Michel Chossudovsky – Professor of Economics, University of Ottawa and TFF associate, author of The Globalization of Poverty, second edition, Common Courage Press

    The important debate on global warming under UN auspices provides but a partial picture of climate change; in addition to the devastating impacts of greenhouse gas emissions on the ozone layer, the World’s climate can now be
    modified as part of a new generation of sophisticated “non-lethal weapons.” Both the Americans and the Russians have developed capabilities to manipulate the World’s climate.

    In the US, the technology is being perfected under the High-frequency Active Aural Research Program (HAARP) as part of the (“Star Wars”) Strategic Defence Initiative (SDI). Recent scientific evidence suggests that HAARP is fully operational and has the ability of potentially triggering floods, droughts, hurricanes and earthquakes.

    HAARP IS A MASS DESTRUCTIVE WEAPON – NOT PART OF ANY NEGOTIATIONS

    From a military standpoint, HAARP is a weapon of mass destruction. Potentially, it constitutes an instrument of conquest capable of selectively destabilising agricultural and ecological systems of entire regions.

    While there is no evidence that this deadly technology has been used, surely the United Nations should be addressing the issue of “environmental warfare” alongside the debate on the climatic impacts of greenhouse gases.

    Despite a vast body of scientific knowledge, the issue of deliberate climatic manipulations for military use has never been explicitly part of the UN agenda on climate change. Neither the official delegations nor the environmental action groups participating in the Hague Conference on Climate Change (CO6) (November 2000) have raised the broad issue of “weather warfare” or “environmental modification techniques (ENMOD)” as relevant to an understanding of climate change.

    The clash between official negotiators, environmentalists and American business lobbies has centered on Washington’s outright refusal to abide by commitments on carbon dioxide reduction targets under the 1997 Kyoto protocol.(1) The impacts of military technologies on the World’s climate are not an object of discussion or concern. Narrowly confined to greenhouse gases, the ongoing debate on climate change serves Washington’s strategic and defense objectives.

    “WEATHER WARFARE”

    World renowned scientist Dr. Rosalie Bertell confirms that “US military scientists are working on weather systems as a potential weapon. The methods include
    the enhancing of storms and the diverting of vapor rivers in the Earth’s atmosphere to produce targeted droughts or floods.”(2)

    Already in the 1970s, former National Security advisor Zbigniew Brzezinski had foreseen in his book “Between Two Ages” that:

    “Technology will make available, to the leaders of major nations, techniques for conducting secret warfare, of which only a bare minimum of the security forces need be appraised… Techniques of weather modification could be employed to produce prolonged periods of drought or storm. ”

    Marc Filterman, a former French military officer, outlines several types of “unconventional weapons” using radio frequencies. He refers to “weather war,” indicating that the U.S. and the Soviet Union had already “mastered the know-how needed to unleash sudden climate changes (hurricanes, drought) in the early 1980s.” (3) These technologies make it “possible to trigger atmospheric disturbances by using Extremely Low Frequency (ELF) radar [waves].” (4)

    A simulation study of future defense “scenarios” commissioned for the US Air Force calls for: “US aerospace forces to ‘own the weather’ by capitalizing on emerging technologies and focusing development of those technologies to war-fighting applications.” From enhancing friendly operations or disrupting those of the enemy via small-scale tailoring of natural weather patterns to complete dominance of global communications and counterspace control, weather-modification offers the war fighter a wide-range of possible options to defeat or coerce an adversary. In the United States, weather-modification will likely become a part of national security policy with both domestic and international applications. Our government will pursue such a policy, depending on its interests, at various levels. (5)

    THE HIGH-FREQUENCY ACTIVE AURAL RESEARCH PROGRAM – HAARP

    The High-Frequency Active Aural Research Program (HAARP) based in Gokoma Alaska-jointly managed by the US Air Force and the US Navy-is part of a new generation of sophisticated weaponry under the US Strategic Defense Initiative (SDI). Operated by the Air Force Research Laboratory’s Space Vehicles Directorate, HAARP constitutes a system of powerful antennas capable of creating “controlled local modifications of the ionosphere”.

    Scientist Dr. Nicholas Begich-actively involved in the public campaign against HAARP-describes HAARP as: “A super-powerful radiowave-beaming technology that lifts areas of the ionosphere (upper layer of the atmosphere) by focusing a beam and heating those areas. Electromagnetic waves then bounce back onto earth and penetrate everything-living and dead.” (6)

    Dr. Rosalie Bertell depicts HAARP as “a gigantic heater that can cause major disruption in the ionosphere, creating not just holes, but long incisions in the protective layer that keeps deadly radiation from bombarding the planet.” (7)

    MISLEADING PUBLIC OPINION

    HAARP has been presented to public opinion as a program of scientific and academic research. US military documents seem to suggest, however, that HAARP’s main objective is to “exploit the ionosphere for Department of Defense purposes.” (8) Without explicitly referring to the HAARP program, a US Air Force study points to the use of “induced ionospheric modifications” as a means of altering weather patterns as well as disrupting enemy communications and radar.(9)

    According to Dr. Rosalie Bertell, HAARP is part of a integrated weapons’ system, which has potentially devastating environmental consequences: “It is related to fifty years of intensive and increasingly destructive programs to understand and control the upper atmosphere. It would be rash not to associate HAARP with the space laboratory construction which is separately being planned by the United States. HAARP is an integral part of a long history of space research and development of a deliberate military nature.

    The military implications of combining these projects is alarming. The ability of the HAARP / Spacelab/ rocket combination to deliver very large amount of energy, comparable to a nuclear bomb, anywhere on earth via laser and particle beams, are frightening. The project is likely to be “sold” to the public as a space shield against incoming weapons, or, for the more gullible, a device for repairing the ozone layer. (10)

    In addition to weather manipulation, HAARP has a number of related uses: “HAARP could contribute to climate change by intensively bombarding the atmosphere with high-frequency rays. Returning low-frequency waves at high intensity could also affect people’s brains, and effects on tectonic movements cannot be ruled out. (11).

    More generally, HAARP has the ability of modifying the World’s electro-magnetic field. It is part of an arsenal of “electronic weapons” which US military researchers consider a “gentler and kinder warfare”. (12)

    WEAPONS OF THE NEW WORLD ORDER

    HAARP is part of the weapons arsenal of the New World Order under the Strategic Defense Initiative (SDI). From military command points in the US, entire national economies could potentially be destabilized through climatic manipulations. More importantly, the latter can be implemented without the knowledge of the enemy, at minimal cost and without engaging military personnel and equipment as in a conventional war. The use of HAARP-if it were to be applied-could have potentially devastating impacts on the World’s climate.

    Responding to US economic and strategic interests, it could be used to selectively modify climate in different parts of the World resulting in the destabilization of agricultural and ecological systems. It is also worth noting that the US Department of Defense has allocated substantial resources to the development of intelligence and monitoring systems on weather changes. NASA and the Department of Defense’s National Imagery and Mapping Agency (NIMA) are working on “imagery for studies of flooding, erosion, land-slide hazards, earthquakes, ecological zones, weather forecasts, and climate change” with data relayed from satellites. (13)

    POLICY INERTIA OF THE UNITED NATIONS

    According to the Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) signed at the 1992 Earth Summit in Rio de Janeiro:

    “States have, in accordance with the Charter of the United Nations and the principles of international law, the responsibility to ensure that activities within their jurisdiction or control do not cause damage to the environment of other States or of areas beyond the limits of national jurisdiction.” (14).

    It is also worth recalling that an international Convention ratified by the UN General Assembly in 1997 bans “military or other hostile use of environmental modification techniques having widespread, long-lasting or severe effects.” (15) Both the US and the Soviet Union were signatories to the Convention. The Convention defines “environmental modification techniques” as referring to any technique for changing-through the deliberate manipulation of natural processes-the dynamics, composition or structure of the earth, including its biota, lithosphere, hydrosphere and atmosphere or of outer space.” (16) Why then did the UN-disregarding the 1977 ENMOD Convention as well as its own charter-decide to exclude from its agenda climatic changes resulting from military programs?

    EUROPEAN PARLIAMENT ACKNOWLEDGES IMPACT OF HAARP

    In February 1998, responding to a report of Mrs. Maj. Britt Theorin-Swedish MEP and longtime peace advocate–, the European Parliament’s Committee on Foreign Affairs, Security and Defense Policy held public hearings in Brussels on the HAARP program.(17) The Committee’s “Motion for Resolution” submitted to the European Parliament: “Considers HAARP by virtue of its far-reaching impact on the environment to be a global concern and calls for its legal, ecological and ethical implications to be examined by an international independent body; [the Committee] regrets the repeated refusal of the United States Administration to give evidence to the public hearing into the environmental and public risks [of&] the HAARP program.” (18.)

    The Committee’s request to draw up a “Green Paper” on “the environmental impacts of military activities”, however, was casually dismissed on the grounds that the European Commission lacks the required jurisdiction to delve into “the links between environment and defense”. (19) Brussels was anxious to avoid a showdown with Washington.

    FULLY OPERATIONAL

    While there is no concrete evidence of HAARP having been used, scientific findings suggest that it is at present fully operational. What this means is that HAARP could potentially be applied by the US military to selectively modify the climate of an “unfriendly nation” or “rogue state” with a view to destabilizing its national economy. Agricultural systems in both developed and developing countries are already in crisis as a result of New World Order policies including market deregulation, commodity dumping, etc. Amply documented, IMF and World Bank “economic medicine” imposed on the Third World and the countries of the former Soviet block has largely contributed to the destabilization of domestic agriculture. In turn, the provisions of the World Trade Organization (WTO) have supported the interests of a handful of Western agri-biotech conglomerates in their quest to impose genetically modified (GMO) seeds on farmers throughout the World.

    It is important to understand the linkage between the economic, strategic and military processes of the New World Order. In the above context, climatic manipulations under the HAARP program (whether accidental or deliberate) would inevitably exacerbate these changes by weakening national economies, destroying infrastructure and potentially triggering the bankruptcy of farmers over vast areas. Surely national governments and the United Nations should address
    the possible consequences of HAARP and other “non-lethal weapons” on climate change.

    NOTES

    1. The latter calls for nations to reduce greenhouse gas
    emissions by an average of 5.2 percent to become effective
    between 2008 and 2012. See Background of Kyoto Protocol at
    http://www.globalwarming.net/gw11.html.

    2. The Times, London, 23 November 2000.

    3. Intelligence Newsletter, December 16, 1999.

    4. Ibid.

    5. Air University of the US Air Force, AF 2025 Final
    Report, http://www.au.af.mil/au/2025/ (emphasis added).

    6. Nicholas Begich and Jeane Manning, The Military’s
    Pandora’s Box, Earthpulse Press,
    http://www.xyz.net/~nohaarp/earthlight.html. See also the
    HAARP home page at http://www.haarp.alaska.edu/).

    7. See Briarpatch, January, 2000. (emphasis added).

    8. Quoted in Begich and Manning, op cit.

    9. Air University, op cit.

    10. Rosalie Bertell, Background of the HAARP Program, 5
    November, 1996,
    http://www.globalpolicy.org/socecon/envronmt/weapons.htm

    11. Begich and Manning, op cit.

    12. Don Herskovitz, Killing Them Softly, Journal of
    Electronic Defense, August 1993. (emphasis added). According
    to Herskovitz, “electronic warfare” is defined by the US
    Department of Defense as “military action involving the use
    of electromagnetic energyƒ” The Journal of Electronic
    Defense at http://www.jedefense.com/ has published a range
    of articles on the application of electronic and
    electromagnetic military technologies.

    13. Military Space, 6 December, 1999.

    14. UN Framework Convention on Climate Change, New York,
    1992. See complete text at
    http://www.unfccc.de/resource/conv/conv_002.html, (emphasis
    added).

    15. See Associated Press, 18 May 1977.

    16. Environmental Modification Ban Faithfully Observed,
    States Parties Declare, UN Chronicle, July, 1984, Vol. 21,
    p. 27.

    17. European Report, 7 February 1998.

    18. European Parliament, Committee on Foreign Affairs,
    Security and Defense Policy, Brussels, doc. no. A4-0005/99,
    14 January 1999.

    19. EU Lacks Jurisdiction to Trace Links Between
    Environment and Defense, European Report, 3 February
    1999.

    Copyright by Michel Chossudovsky, Ottawa, November, 2000.

    All rights reserved.

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